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Biologie du Développement de Villefranche-sur-Mer

Informations générales


This species has a life cycle in three phases, with free swimming sexual medusae and planula larvae, and vegatatively propagating polyp colonies.



Download a more detailed life cycle, adapted from
Kubota (1978), Jour. Fac. Sci Hokkaido Univ. SerVI, Zool. 21










All stages can be conveniently maintained in the laboratory.


Please refer (external wiki pages) for detailed culture method.

Sex determinantion is influenced by temperature. While some colonies produce medusae of only one sex, others will produce male medusae when kept at low temperatures (around 16 °C) and mainly females  at 18- 24°C (Carré & Carré, 2000*).


Baby medusae develop to maturity in about 2 weeks at 20°C if well fed.
Males and females can be easily distinguished by their gonads,
seen here in a short film (1.1 MB: spawning male then female)


We keep a 8h/16h dark/light cycle. The adults spawn 2h after the light stimulus.

Eggs and sperm can be collected following spawning into small dishes . Depending on maturity, feeding and age, female medusae will produce 5-20 eggs per day. Thus, a dish of 6-7 females should provide around  50- 100 eggs every day.

Good fertilisation rates are obtained if gametes are mixed withi 1 -1 1/2 hours of spawning, whioch gives time for microinjection before fertilisation.





Evelyn Houliston - 25/09/17

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